Twin Turbines in Paris

Power Sales Group, Inc. Operations Manager, Lisa Cassidy had the opportunity to see Paris on her recent family trip to France. First stop on her trip, the Eiffel Tower; but not because it is a 126 year old icon symbolizing France across the generations.  Her interest was in the Eiffel Tower’s green initiative with the addition of (2) onsite wind turbines.  Made to blend with the tower’s original design, the turbines are installed inside the scaffolding on the second level and are painted in the same color making them nearly impossible to see. The pair of VisionAIR5 wind turbines were designed by Urban Green Energy. At 5.2 meters in height and 3.2 meters in width, these vertical axis wind turbines weigh in at 756 kilograms (kg) and have a lifetime of 20 years. Furthermore, they are perportedly quiet due to lower blade tip speed and low number of revolutions per minute (RPM). The turbines are installed 122 meters (400ft) from the ground in order to maximize annual electricity production potential. All told, the turbines are expected to produce about 10,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity per year, or about the total annual demand of the tower’s first floor, home to restaurants, a souvenir shop, and history exhibits. In addition to this modern marvel, Lisa and her family enjoyed all that Paris had to offer.  In their week-long trip, she visited Notre Dame, the Catacombs, Versailles and stopped by the Louvre.  They dined on baguettes, crepes, French Champagne and foie gras.  All in all the trip was, C’est Bon!!!  ...

Five Point Substation Security

FIVE-Point Substation Security Power Sales Group and BETAFence USA have come up with 5 considerations for selecting materials and suppliers to meet NERC CIP-014 protocol. Here’s what you should know. 1. The Three “D’s” of an effective Site Security Plan DETERRENCE – Reduce possible attacks, making a “high risk” target less obvious for would-be attackers. DETECTION – Identify attacks – before or during action – and deploy appropriate response. DELAY – Make attacks more difficult, adding time to allow for identification and response. 2.  Security Mesh or Smart Fencing vs. traditional Chain Link While chain link fencing offers decreased cost and has been the traditional substation fence of choice for decades, consideration should be given to “Smart Fencing”: Anti-Cut – resists common cutting tools due to the small spacing between wires, its heavy gauge, and the amount of cuts needed for penetration prove it to be more advantageous than chain link. Anti-Climb – small mesh spacing strongly resists hand and foot holds for climbing Security Integration- Seamless integration with complementary security components. 3.  Anti-Ram There are two different rating levels when defining anti-ram protection – DoS (K-Ratings) and the ASTM F2656 07 Standard or “M-Designations”.  Both assume a vehicle weight of 15Klbs, then apply a vehicle speed of 30, 40 and 50mph.  Each standard then allows for a maximum amount of penetration measured in feet.  It is up to the utility to specify the rating needed for the application. 4. Ballistic Walls UL-752 specifies ballistic standards.  It has a designation determined by the firearm and round of ammunition.  It is up to the utility to specify what level of protection is needed.  When...

R-Series: An Origin

In 1877, French military engineer Charles Renard was in charge of the materials of the Balloons of the French army. At the time he gained responsibility, there were 425 different cable sizes that balloon designers were selecting from. Keeping adequate stock was troublesome. He was confident the designers could work from a much smaller pool of sizes. He devised a plan to reduce the quantity from 425 to just 17. He developed an exponent that would create “Preferred” numbers. The basic concept divided the intervals between 1 and 10 into 5, 10, 20 and 40 steps.  One variant resulted in the preferred numbers R-10 Series; 1.00, 1.25, 1.60, 2.00, 2.50, 3.15, 4.00, 5.00, 6.30 and 8.00 The electrical industry adapted the R-10 series and it is still in use today. This series of numbers is used throughout our ratings; system voltage, amp ratings, switch interruption ratings, creepage distance. Some ratings follow the series without any rounding. Insulator creepage: 12.5mm/kV, 16mm/kV, 20mm/kV, 31.5mm/kV Switch interruption: 12.5 kA, 16 kA, 20 kA, 31.5 kA, 40 kA, 50 kA, 63 kA Insulator cantilever: 12.5 kN, 16 kN, 20 kN, 31.5 kN Other ratings follow the system, but vary slightly such as: Operating current: 1200 A, 1600 A, 2000 A, 3000A System voltage: 125 kV, 161 kV, 215 kV, 345...